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Cardiac Valve Replacement
Open – heart surgery to treat heart valve dysfunction. Replacement valves can be artificial, human or animal based.
Cardiac Stress Testing
Testing of the heart, either with EKG or echocardiography, during stressful conditions. Can be performed using physical exercise (treadmill) or with medication.
Cardiomyopathy
Disease of the muscle of the heart, resulting in reduced heart pumping power. May result in congestive heart failure.
Carotid Endarterectomy
Removal of atherosclerotic plaque from the carotid artery in the neck. Plaques of the carotid artery are a leading cause of stroke.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Nerve compression at the wrist due to ligament inflammation. May result in hand weakness and numbness. Can be detected with EMG, severe cases can be treated with surgical carpal tunnel release.
Carpal Tunnel Release
Surgical opening of the carpal (wrist) ligament to reduce nerve compression caused by carpal tunnel syndrome. This procedure is performed by neurosurgeons, some plastic surgeons and some orthopedic surgeons.
Cataracts
Clouding of the lens of the eye.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
The fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Can be examined using a lumbar puncture. Inability of the body to absorb or drain this fluid leads to hydrocephalus.
Cholecystectomy
Surgical removal of the gallbladder. May be performed for cholecystitis or severe cholelithiasis. Can be done through a laparoscope (camera) or open (through an incision in the right upper abdomen).
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder. Severe cases can be treated with cholecystectomy.
Cholelithiasis
Stones of the gall bladder. Can lead to cholecystitis. Severe cases can be treated with cholecystectomy.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease–(COPD)
Reduction in the normal elasticity of the lungs resulting in reduced lung function. Includes the diseases of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Detected using pulmonary function testing.
Clotting Disorders
Inability of the blood to clot normally. May be caused by certain medications, inborn deficiencies of clotting factors, liver disease, blood disease.
Colonoscopy
Similar to flexible sigmoidoscopy, but visualizes the entire colon. More uncomfortable than flexible sig., usually requiring sedation.
Colposcopy
Inspection and usually biopsy of the cervix under direct vision using microscope.
Congestive Heart Failure
Weakening of the heart, with reduced pumping force of blood out of the heart. The heart enlarges because of increased blood congestion within it. Can be detected by echocardiography.
Coronary Angioplasty
The use of an inflatable balloon to compress atherosclerotic plaques and increase blood flow through the coronary arteries.
Coronary Arteriography
X–ray Test involving injection of dye into coronary blood vessels to determine coronary artery disease. May be combined with coronary angioplasty.
Coronary Artery Disease
Blockage of the arteries supplying blood to the heart with atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Increased by high fat and cholesterol in blood, smoking, high blood pressure, lack of exercise. Diagnosed with cardiac stress testing or coronary arteriography. May be treated with coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass. Can cause angina (chest pain).
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
The surgical procedure of bypassing diseased coronary arteries using an alternate blood supply or skipping over lesions using vein from the leg or artificial blood vessel material.
Craniotomy
Removal of a portion of the skull to surgically access the brain.
CSF Shunting
Surgical treatment for hydrocephalus. Involves placing plastic tube and valve from the brain into the abdomen or other body cavity. This allows for an alternate pathway for CSF drainage.
Cystoscopy
Direct visual inspection of the bladder using a camera.
 

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